Anton Chekhov is considered by many scholars to be the father of modern realism. He was the author of novels, short stories, essays, poetry, and plays, including Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters, and The Cherry Orchard. Chekhov wrote The Seagull in 1895, and it was first produced in 1896 at the Alexandrinsky Theatre where it was received so poorly that the actor playing Nina lost her voice from terror. After such a devastating failure, Chekhov decided that he would never write another play.
Konstantin Stanislavski, an actor and director who would come to be known as the father of modern acting,